Throughout the letters of the New Testament, the people of God are called lots of things. They are the “elect” (1 Pet 1:1), “faithful brothers” (Col 1:2), “beloved” (1 John 2:7), “children of God” (1 John 3:2), a “holy nation” (1 Pet 2:9), and most of all they are called “saints.”
Conspicuously absent from this list is the term “sinners.” There is no place I am aware of where the church, the people of God, are collectively called “sinners.” Moreover, an argument can be made that there is no instance in the New Testament where a believer is referred to as a “sinner.” The closest is Paul’s well-known reference to himself as the “foremost” (or “chief”) of sinners in 1 Tim 1:15. But, the context makes it plain that Paul is using this terminology to refer to his old life as a persecutor of the church. He says, “formerly I was a blasphemer, persecutor, and insolent opponent” (1:13).
Now, of course, this does not mean that Christians do not sin. Indeed, Christians do sin, and sin in ways that are much deeper and more serious than we often realize. This is the whole point of Romans 7 where Paul laments the fact that he often does what he does not want to do. The entire Christian life is a struggle between the new self and the old self, and the latter often wins out. Paul can even refer to himself as a “wretched man” (Rom 7:24).
But, here is what is interesting. As Paul diagnoses his own law-breaking he concludes that whenever he sins, it is not the real Paul that is doing it. He declares, “So now it is no longer I who do it, but sin that dwells within me” (7:17). And again, “Now if I do what I do not want, it is no longer I who do it, but sin that dwells within me” (7:20).
Do not misunderstand what Paul is doing here. He is not trying to conjure up some excuse where he is not guilty of these sins by reason of having a schizophrenic, split personality. No, Paul knows he is culpable for these sins. But, in the midst of doing so, Paul is keen to make it plain that it is not the new Paul that is sinning, but the old Paul. In this sense, he can say that when he sins, he is not his true self.
Put another way, Paul’s identity is bound up in the new man that he has become in Christ.
If so, then this explains (at least partially) why Paul is so keen to refer to believers as “saints” (literally “holy ones”) at the beginning of almost all his letters. Paul is not naïve about the fact that Christians still sin, and sin in major ways (indeed, his letters are often about their sins!). But, he wants Christians to think of themselves in regard to their new natures, not their old. They are saints who sometimes sin, not sinners who sometimes do right.
And when our true identities are understood rightly, it actually affects the way we view (and respond to) our sins. We might think that the best way to appreciate the depth of our sin is to think of ourselves primarily in the category of “sinners.” But, this can actually have the opposite effect. If we think of ourselves only as “sinners” then our sins are seen as something rather ordinary and inevitable. They are just the result of who we are. Sure, we wish we didn’t sin. But, that’s just what “sinners” do.
If we instead view ourselves as “saints,” then we will begin to see our sin in a whole new light. If we really are “holy ones” then whatever sins we commit are a deeper, more profound, and more serious departure from God’s calling than we ever realized. Our sin, in a sense, is even more heinous because it is being done by those who now have new natures and a new identity.
And it is this “cognitive dissonance” between our identities as saints and our sinful actions that leads us to repentance. We repent because these sins are not ordinary and expected. They are fundamentally contrary to who God has made us to be. It is this tension between our identities and our actions that is lost when we cease to think of ourselves as saints.
In the end, I am not suggesting that Christians can never refer to themselves with the word “sinner.” If rightly understood, this can be fine. But, we should also be keen to think of ourselves as saints. After all, when Christ returns that is what we will be. In glory, there will be no sinners. Only saints.
Patrick Chan says
Thanks for another good post, Dr. Kruger! I always appreciate what you have to say. This post is especially encouraging to me in large part because I often notice my tendency to think of myself as such an ungodly sinner (which I am), but at the same time fail to consider the “saint” bit, and as such I’m easily given over to despair, which in turn (sigh) can actually lead me on a downward spiral toward unbelief and worse. (Not to mention I think I’m one of those more melancholy types, which probably doesn’t exactly help a whole lot here.) Anyway, what you’ve written is an encouraging reminder of our true identity in Christ, and makes me long for the day when this body of death shall be no more, when what is mortal is swallowed up by life. Thanks again!
I’ll echo Patrick’s first two sentences.
Tim Francis says
Great post as usual. Such an important matter – that Christians take their identity from the terms, words and phrases actually used in the New Testament and live up to that.
I would like your thoughts on this article by a Canadian Reformed Presbyterian pastor – http://ia700409.us.archive.org/31/items/BredenhofArticles1/SinnersOrNot.pdf
He makes and defends the claim that Paul is referring to his current state in 1 Tim. 1 and that the Heidelberg catechism also uses the phrase “wretched sinners” in refers to regenerated people.
Michael Kruger says
Thanks for passing this along. I like this article, and agree with virtually all of it. As I said at the end of my article, I don’t have a problem if we refer to Christians as “sinners.” I just think we need to understand what we mean by that term. The article even clarifies:”Here it needs to be pointed out that there are three different ways that the Bible uses the word “sinner.” First, it’s used to describe those who are objectively wicked in the eyes of God. In this sense, Christians are not sinners. Second, it is used to describe those who are wicked in the eyes of men. We see that usage in the gospels when Jesus is said to associate with sinners. Third, it is used to describe those who still struggle with the remnants of a sinful nature, even though they may be objectively righteous in the eyes of God.” I disagree that Paul is using the third use in 1 Tim 1, but we are on the same page generally. However, I will say that the article never addresses how the NT never refers to Christians as “sinners” (apart from the contested 1 Tim 1 text).
To borrow from Luther, if charged with sin we should boldly acknowledge that we are sinners, but we should go past that to acknowledge how great our saviour is, transcending the sins we might commit.
Michael Kruger says
Amen, Jason. Indeed we are sinners. Luther is right. And, as I noted in my article, I do think Christians can and should use that term. But, you rightly note that our identity should go beyond that.
Pal Borzasi says
What should we think of Galatians 2:17? Does Paul teach that we are sinners or that we were sinners before justification? Or something else?
Matt Grotheer says
Very helpful article. Thank you.
Great article. This is certainly the minority view, as people so flippantly toss about the term “sinner” but you did a great job pinpointing the facts about the use of the term. I have debated this with Lutherans, and one thing to keep in mind is that this issue is written into the Lutheran catechism so it is unlikely that you will be able to convince them (unfortunately). But to those open to what the text says, you are spot on, and I personally would never refer to a Christian brother as a “sinner.” It also doesn’t help that so many of the prosperity preachers actually are correct on this doctrine (since they stress the “prosperous”, abundant, Christian life it lends itself well to stress the new identity of the believer), which draws unnecessary suspicion to the issue.